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REVIEW
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 270-280

Microglia in neurodegenerative diseases


1 Department of Anesthesiology, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Disease, Shanghai Municipal Key Clinical Specialty; Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
2 Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
3 Department of Anesthesiology, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Disease, Shanghai Municipal Key Clinical Specialty, Shanghai, China
4 Institute of Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Electronic Information and Electronic Engineering; National Centers for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Brain Disorders & Institute of Basic and Translational Medicine, Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China

Correspondence Address:
Wei-Lin Jin
Institute of Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Electronic Information and Electronic Engineering; National Centers for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Brain Disorders & Institute of Basic and Translational Medicine, Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province
China
Ze-Yong Yang
Department of Anesthesiology, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Disease, Shanghai Municipal Key Clinical Specialty, Shanghai
China
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Source of Support: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Nos. 81401279 (to ZYY), 81873740 (to ZYY); China International Medical Exchange Fund, No. 2019-anesthesia-14 (to ZYY); the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai of China, No. 18ZR1443100 (to ZYY); Wuxin Project of International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine of China, No. 2018-38 (to ZYY); Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Innovation Center of Translational Medicine Collaboration of China, No. TM201729 (to ZYY); the 12th Undergraduate Training Programs for innovation of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine of China, No. 1218201 (to YX, MZJ and WLJ), Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.290881

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A major feature of neurodegeneration is disruption of central nervous system homeostasis, during which microglia play diverse roles. In the central nervous system, microglia serve as the first line of immune defense and function in synapse pruning, injury repair, homeostasis maintenance, and regulation of brain development through scavenging and phagocytosis. Under pathological conditions or various stimulations, microglia proliferate, aggregate, and undergo a variety of changes in cell morphology, immunophenotype, and function. This review presents the features of microglia, especially their diversity and ability to change dynamically, and reinterprets their role as sensors for multiple stimulations and as effectors for brain aging and neurodegeneration. This review also summarizes some therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases that target microglia.


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