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REVIEW
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1228-1239

SARS-CoV-2 involvement in central nervous system tissue damage


1 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
2 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon
3 Faculty of Medicine, University of Balamand, Koura, Lebanon
4 Faculty of Science, Lebanese University, Baabda, Lebanon
5 Program for Neurotrauma, Neuroproteomics & Biomarkers Research, Departments of Emergency Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
6 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
7 Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
8 Department of Experimental Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
9 Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Faculty of Sciences I, Lebanese University, Hadath, Beirut, Lebanon
10 Faculty of Medicine, Lebanese University, Neuroscience Research Center (NRC), Beirut, Lebanon
11 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; Neuroscience Institute, Neurology Department, Geisinger Health System, PA, USA
12 Department of Psychiatry, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

Correspondence Address:
Firas Kobeissy
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; Neuroscience Institute, Neurology Department, Geisinger Health System, PA

Maya Bizri
Department of Psychiatry, American University of Beirut, Beirut
Lebanon
Mirna Sabra
Faculty of Medicine, Lebanese University, Neuroscience Research Center (NRC), Beirut
Lebanon
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Source of Support: This work was partially funded by a joint grant funded by the Flash Grant Call from the National Council for Scientific Research in Lebanon (CNRS-L) and the American University of Beirut (AUB) titled: “Neurological Complications PostCoronavirus Disease (COVID-19)” (to FK) and “SARS-COV2 antibodies signature in exposed individuals to assess protection status” (to ES), Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.327323

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As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread globally, it became evident that the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects multiple organs including the brain. Several clinical studies revealed that patients with COVID-19 infection experience an array of neurological signs ranging in severity from headaches to life-threatening strokes. Although the exact mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 virus directly impacts the brain is not fully understood, several theories have been suggested including direct and indirect pathways induced by the virus. One possible theory is the invasion of SARS-CoV-2 to the brain occurs either through the bloodstream or via the nerve endings which is considered to be the direct route. Such findings are based on studies reporting the presence of viral material in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain cells. Nevertheless, the indirect mechanisms, including blood-clotting abnormalities and prolonged activation of the immune system, can result in further tissue and organ damages seen during the course of the disease. This overview attempts to give a thorough insight into SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus neurological infection and highlights the possible mechanisms leading to the neurological manifestations observed in infected patients.


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