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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Neuroprotective effects of hop-flower extract in neurodegenerative diseases and suppression of retinal ganglion cell death by hop-flower extract in glaucoma model mice. (A) Schematic representation of the neuroprotective effects of hop-flower extract in neurodegenerative diseases. (B–D) Retinal ganglion cell counts in retinal flat-mount of 12-month-old GLAST (+/–): Thy1-CFP mice with or without administration of hop-flower extract: (B) Retinal ganglion cell numbers in retinal flat-mount. Retinal ganglion cell numbers were counted within 250 μm squares at a distance of 1200 μm from the disc center in four directions. *P < 0.05, Student’s t-test. (C) Representative images of retinal flat-mount. Scale bars: 500 μm. (D) Representative images of counted squares. Scale bars: 50 μm. (E, F) Optic nerve cross-sections of 18-month-old GLAST (+/–): Thy1-CFP mice with or without administration of hop-flower extract: (E) Optic nerve cross-sectional area. *P < 0.05, Student’s t-test. (F) Representative images of optic nerve cross-sections. Scale bars: 50 μm. Adapted from Hasegawa et al. (2020).

<b>Figure 1: Neuroprotective effects of hop-flower extract in neurodegenerative diseases and suppression of retinal ganglion cell death by hop-flower extract in glaucoma model mice.</b>
(A) Schematic representation of the neuroprotective effects of hop-flower extract in neurodegenerative diseases. (B–D) Retinal ganglion cell counts in retinal flat-mount of 12-month-old GLAST (+/–): Thy1-CFP mice with or without administration of hop-flower extract: (B) Retinal ganglion cell numbers in retinal flat-mount. Retinal ganglion cell numbers were counted within 250 μm squares at a distance of 1200 μm from the disc center in four directions. *<i>P</i> < 0.05, Student’s <i>t</i>-test. (C) Representative images of retinal flat-mount. Scale bars: 500 μm. (D) Representative images of counted squares. Scale bars: 50 μm. (E, F) Optic nerve cross-sections of 18-month-old GLAST (+/–): Thy1-CFP mice with or without administration of hop-flower extract: (E) Optic nerve cross-sectional area. *<i>P</i> < 0.05, Student’s <i>t</i>-test. (F) Representative images of optic nerve cross-sections. Scale bars: 50 μm. Adapted from Hasegawa et al. (2020).