Figure 3: geNorm-determined expression stability of candidate reference genes. (A) Average expression stability of the candidate reference genes Actb, Ankrd27, CypA, Gapdh, Hprt1, Mrpl10, Pgk1, Rictor, Rn18s, Tbp, Ubc, Ubxn11, and Ywhaz. (B) Pairwise variations of reference genes. Actb: Beta-actin; Ankrd27: Ankyrin repeat domain 27; CypA: cyclophilin A; Gapdh: glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Hprt1: hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1; Mrpl10: mitochondrial ribosomal protein L10; Pgk1: phosphoglycerate kinase 1; Rictor: RPTOR independent companion of mTOR, complex 2; Rn18s: 18S ribosomal RNA; Tbp: TATA box binding protein; Ubc: ubiquitin C; Ubxn11: UBX domain protein 11; Ywhaz: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta. Vn/n+1 below 0.15 indicates that no further (n + 1) internal control genes are needed. For example, when V2/3 = 0.044, Ankrd27 and Ubc are sufficient for gene normalization, and Tbp is not needed.